The word hacker can be an charged word that means different things to different people. Usually this word is used among people outside of the software industry to refer to a computer criminal, but there are alternative definitions that predate this that are still in common use today within the industry that don’t have anything to do with criminal behavior (such as the popular forum Hacker News). In this post, I would like to explore the different uses of this word and try to come up with an alternative definition that unifies them all.
Alternative Definitions within the Software Industry
Within the software industry, the term is sometimes used to describe a talented computer programmer who enjoys solving problems with code. The common definition can be used within the industry as well, but this might be seen by some as controversial. In an influential attempt to define the term in 2001, Eric S. Raymond, a legendary self-described “hacker”, made this distinction.
There is another group of people who loudly call themselves hackers, but aren’t. These are people (mainly adolescent males) who get a kick out of breaking into computers and phreaking the phone system. Real hackers call these people ‘crackers’ and want nothing to do with them.
While I agree that the word can and should be used to describe noncriminal behavior, if a colleague calls me in the middle of the night and says to me “hackers just broke into our database”, I’m not going to spend any time correcting his usage. The word cracker seems to have fallen out of style because I’ve never heard anyone use it.
Rather, the word hacker is more often used as a term of endearment among software engineers to denote membership in a particular subculture. Between developers, a hacker is someone who enjoys solving difficult problems in a creative way. Richard Stallman, another legendary hacker, puts it like this:
Hacking means exploring the limits of what is possible, in a spirit of playful cleverness.
Hacker culture values a healthy skepticism of authority and the status quo in search of more effective and more interesting solutions to common problems. You can hear echos of the hacker ethos in the present Silicon Valley ideal of the disruption of established industries. In fact, both Stallman and Raymond were particularly disruptive to the software industry in their time by developing the Free and Open Source Licenses which now form the legal basis for how companies and individuals share common code bases with each other.
There is one more common usage of the word hack in the industry that is not as flattering. It refers to a solution to a problem that is either seen as overly complicated, fragile, or uses a low-level interface to accomplish a high-level task. This usage is somewhat related to the common definition of “a professional who is bad at something” (such as the comedian I saw last night is a hack), but in programming the word is more specific and I think it’s more related to the above two definitions as this article explains well. The word can also be used positively to describe “a clever hack” which is a surprising use of an algorithm or obscure interface to accomplish a task in an unexpected way. This is the sense of the word in the phrase “life hack”.
Putting it all Together
These definitions might seem to be incompatible with each other, but I think they are related in a simple way. Let’s review them and try to find out what they have in common.
- Someone who breaks into computer systems
- A creative and disruptive programmer
- Inappropriate or surprising use of low-level interfaces
I would like to propose a definition that unifies all of these usages.
A hacker is someone who creates an interface where none existed before.
[note: I think this is an original insight, but please let me know in the comments if someone has already put it like this].
Thus, hackers are people who create new interfaces. This definitely describes the pioneers of the early Internet protocols and the creators of the GNU operating system like Richard Stallman who made a Free Unix interface. These people are legendary hackers and they deserve our praise. It also describes people who break into systems and steal data. For instance, there is not an interface on your banking website that lets you take money out of someone else’s account and put it into yours. If you create this interface (hopefully using a surprising low-level approach!) then you are a hacker and you should go to jail.
Let me explain what I mean in an analogy of a house. A common saying is when God closes a door, he opens a window. Entering a house through the window is a hack in all three senses. It is 1) a way to subvert God’s security system of the house by bypassing the lock on the door to gain access, 2) a creative solution to a technical problem which disrupts our notion of home entry, and 3) the abuse of an interface to do something it was not designed to do. I think all hacks have these elements to them. While good hacks are not criminal, there is still a sort of a sense of mischief to them and a spirit of doing things you are not supposed to do. Someone who solves a problem in the way they are “supposed” to do it is definitely not a hacker after all. And of course, to create any new interface requires using a lower level interface by definition.
Don’t get me wrong, I’m not trying to compare the hacker community to criminals. These are two distinct groups of people with very different goals. But maybe these similarities are why the terms got tangled up together in the media.